Bhubaneswar is located inKhurda districtof Odisha. It is situated in theeastern coastal plains, along the axis of mountains of the Eastern Ghats. It is located between 20025N latitudes and 85055E longitude on the western fringe.The city has an average altitude of 45m (148ft)above sea level.It lies southwest of theMahanadi Riverthat forms the northern boundary of Bhubaneswar metropolitan area, within itsdelta. The city is bounded by theDaya Riverto the south and the Kuakhai Riverto the east;theChandaka Wildlife SanctuaryandNandankanan Zoolie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively.Bhubaneswar is topographically divided into western uplands and eastern lowlands, with hillocks in the western and northern parts.Kanjia Lakeon the northern outskirts affords richbiodiversityand is awetlandof national importance. Bhubaneswar's soils are 65 per centlaterite, 25 per centalluvialand 10 per centsandstone. TheBureau of Indian Standardsplaces the city insideseismic zone IIIon a scale ranging fromI to Vin order of increasing susceptibility toearthquakes. TheUnited Nations Development Programmereports that there is very high damage risk from winds andcyclones. The1999 Odisha cyclonecaused major damage to buildings, the city's infrastructure and cost many human lives.Floods and water logging in the low-lying areas have become common due to unplanned growth.
The city lies on the low lateritic plateau and the erosion has made its topography a valley-and ridge one, having series of drainage channels. Morphologically it lies in the Deccan upland of Gonwana origin.
The city has 30 water bodies in and around the city. The important ones are:
Bindu Sagar Lake alias Bindu Sarovara also known as Ocean Drop Tank is a sacred lake located to the north of the Lingaraj Temple and to the east of the Ananta Vasudeva Temple. Legend says that Bindu Sagar Lake was created by Lord Shiva by bringing water from all the holy places to quench the thirst of Goddess Parvati. Hence it is believed that a dip in the Bindu Sagar Lake would wash away all the sins and the devotees get rid of all their diseases by drinking the holy water.
Located in a tranquil and peaceful atmosphere and surrounded by numerous temples and shrines, Bindu Sagar Lake serves as a popular picnic spot. The 1,300 feet long and 700 feet wide large Bindu Sagar Lake consists of a tiny island with several shrines in its middle. The lake is the venue for conducting the ritual bath of Lord Lingaraj (Lord Shiva), held during the annual Car festival (Ashokastami). On that day, the Shiva lingam of the Lingaraja temple will be taken to the Bindu Sagar Lake for the ritual bath.
It is another sweet water lake with about 134 acres (0.54km2) of area located in Nandankanan of Cuttack district near Bhubaneswar.
About 8 km from Bhubaneswar, on the State Highway No.8 towards Puri, there is a tank named Kausalya Ganga which is famous for pisciculture. In the middle of the tank there is an island-the remains of a palace. The tank is said to have been originally a kos(3.82 km.) long on each side; and though a great part of it is now silted up and under cultivation it is still about one and a half mile long (2.41 km) and five furlongs (1 km) broad.
Most parts of the city have laterite capping. The soil depth is variable ranging from 15 cm to 85 cm and the pH is acidic ranging from 5.5 to 6.2.The soil is Deltaic Alluvium type in Balipatna and Balianta block regions . Where as in Bhubaneswar, Jatni and Khurda block regions it is Laterite.
The city has around 22 natural drains in valleys. The rain water flowed out of the land immediately.Rapid unplanned growth around the capital city has resulted in large scale inundation during heavy showers. Vast agricultural fields used to constitute outer channel of Kanjia Lake of Nandankanan. However, as real estate developers and new settlers have started to convert agricultural land into residential colonies, the natural channels for water discharge are blocked now. Result is evident. Two hours of heavy rain would throw life haywire.
Even the national highway near Acharya Vihar gets submerged. Traffic has to be diverted and vehicles remain stranded on road for hours due to water-logging. Experts blame it to construction of flyovers and development roads without paying much emphasis on water discharge mechanism.
The new by-pass road on eastern side of GGP Colony, Bomikhal and Laxmisagar area too proved to be a bane for people who have been struggling to cope with water inundation during rainy season. The new road had also blocked natural discharge of water from capital city. While conceiving new infrastructure projects, water discharge system has been neglected. Apart from human miseries, water-logging has also an impact on economy of the city.